Game Er Software
• • • A video game developer is a that specializes in – the process and related disciplines of creating. A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with employee responsibilities split between individual disciplines, such as,,,, etc. Most game development companies have financial and usually marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as independent or indie developers and usually make. A developer may specialize in a certain (such as 's, 's, 's ), or may develop for a number of systems (including and ). [ ] Video-game developers specialize in certain types of games (such as or ).
Some focus on games from one system to another, or translating games from one language to another. Less commonly, some do software-development work in addition to games.
Most maintain development studios (such as 's, 's studios, 's, and Sony's and ). However, since publishing is still their primary activity they are generally described as 'publishers' rather than 'developers'. Developers may be private as well (such as how was, the company which developed the exclusive to Microsoft's ). Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • Types [ ] First-party developer [ ] In the, a first-party developer is part of a company which manufactures a and develops exclusively for it. First-party developers may use the name of the company itself (such as ), have a specific division name (such as ) or have been an independent studio before being acquired by the console manufacturer (such as or ). Second-party developer [ ] Second-party developer is a colloquial term often used by gaming enthusiasts and media to describe game studios who take development contracts from platform holders and produce games exclusive to that platform. These studios may have exclusive publishing agreements (or other business relationships) with the platform holder, but maintain independence so upon completion or termination of their contracts are able to continue developing games.
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Examples are (originally a 2nd party for Sony), (originally a 2nd party for Microsoft) and (originally a 2nd party for Nintendo). Third-party developers [ ]. See also: in 1979 became the first third-party video game developer, where the term 'second-party' originally referred to the consumers. Hide Webpage Source Code. A third-party developer may also publish games, or work for a video game publisher to develop a title. Both publisher and developer have considerable input in the game's and content. However, the publisher's wishes generally override those of the developer. The business arrangement between the developer and publisher is governed by a, which specifies a list of intended to be delivered over a period of time.
By updating its milestones, the publisher verifies that work is progressing quickly enough to meet its deadline and can direct the developer if the game is not meeting expectations. When each milestone is completed (and accepted), the publisher pays the developer an advance on. Successful developers may maintain several teams working on different games for different publishers. Generally, however, third-party developers tend to be small, close-knit teams. Third-party game development is a volatile sector, since small developers may be dependent on income from a single publisher; one canceled game may be devastating to a small developer. Because of this, many small development companies are short-lived. A common for a successful video-game developer is to sell the company to a publisher, becoming an in-house developer.
In-house development teams tend to have more freedom in the design and content of a game compared to third-party developers. One reason is that since the developers are employees of the publisher, their interests are aligned with those of the publisher; the publisher may spend less effort ensuring that the developer's decisions do not enrich the developer at the publisher's expense. In recent years, larger publishers have acquired several third-party developers.
While these development teams are now technically 'in-house', they often continue to operate in an autonomous manner (with their own culture and work practices). For example, Activision acquired (1997); (1999), which merged with in 2014; (2001); (2001); (2002); (2002); (2003) and (2005). All these developers continue operating much as they did before acquisition, the primary differences being exclusivity and financial details.
Publishers tend to be more forgiving of their own development teams going over budget (or missing deadlines) than third-party developers. A developer may not be the primary entity creating a piece of software, usually providing an external software tool which helps organize (or use) information for the primary software product.
Such tools may be a,, or add-in software; this is also known as. A good example of this is developed by Interactive Data Visualization Inc. In addition, accessories like may be known as third-party headsets; the company manufacturing the headset may be different from the console company. For example, is a third-party headset manufacturer for the and. Also now including the and.
Independent developers [ ]. See also: and Independents are software developers which are not owned by (or dependent on) a single publisher. Some of these developers self-publish their games, relying on the and word of mouth for publicity. Without the large marketing budgets of mainstream publishers, their products may receive less recognition than those of larger publishers such as Sony, Microsoft or Nintendo. With the advent of digital distribution of inexpensive games on game consoles, it is now possible for independent developers to forge agreements with console manufacturers for broad distribution of their games.
Other independent developers create game software for a number of video-game publishers on several gaming platforms. [ ] In recent years this model has been in decline; larger publishers, such as Electronic Arts and Activision, increasingly turn to internal studios (usually former independent developers acquired for their development needs). [ ] Quality of life [ ] Video-game development is usually conducted in a casual business environment, with T-shirts and sandals common work attire. Many workers find this type of environment rewarding and pleasant professionally and personally. However, the industry also requires long working hours from its employees (sometimes to an extent seen as unsustainable).
Employee is not uncommon. An entry-level programmer can make, on average, over $66,000 annually only if they are successful in obtaining a position in a medium to large video game company. An experienced game-development employee, depending on his or her expertise and experience, averaged roughly $73,000 in 2007.
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